Musselwhite and Haddad (2010) Needs and motivations for travel in later life
In Musselwhite and Haddad (2010) we propose a model of needs and motivations for travel in later life. We suggest that at travel or mobility in later life is important at all three levels, yet they have differing ways of being presented socially. It is very common for older people, practitioners and policy makers to talk about the need for travel at the utilitarian level and less common for them to discuss the social or affective needs. Even less common is the discussion of travel for its own sake or for 'luxury' or 'discretionary' purposes, we term aesthetic needs. Hence, transport provision in later life is usually centred on practical or utilitarian support while forgetting other important levels of need. So older people with mobility difficulties who may have given up driving can actually get their utilitarian needs satisfied somewhat (though this can still be difficult) by, say, community transport, but their social, affective and aesthetic needs are not met. Unsurprisingly in our hypermobile world, driving a car fulfils all three level of needs really easily and hence giving-up driving is really hard.
Our Model of needs is also found in Spanish as published here